ANUlogo:-| Structure and Magnetism of Materials

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[AINSE | Research School of Chemistry, ANU ]
[ | @DarrenGoossens ]

Latest News

December 2020: Links relevant to my current activities include, and

My most recent publications are textbooks for Year 12 physics. The Physics in Focus series is published by Cengage, and can be discovered here and here, for example.

This worked out ok; here.

November 2020: I'd like to thank the many people that I worked with during my time in science. It was very rewarding and at times exciting and infuriating. I think I did my share of infuriating others, too. That it did not work out in the long term was my own doing; I learned some valuable lessons, but too late. Amongst others, I'd like to offer many thanks, and in some cases apologies, to (in alphabetical order):

As of October 2019, I'm coordinating the Successful Science Writing and Editing workshop Biotext is running on 13 Nov 2019. Take a look at Eventbrite.

As of April 2017 I now work for Biotext as a science writer and editor. Come and have a look and see what we do. My personal email address is; I can no longer access my ANU email account, but you are welcome to send emails to that address.

These webpages are likely to be updated rarely if ever, and provide a snapshot of business as it was at about the end of 2013. You will find outdated content and dead links, and I do not plan to do anything about it.

Find me on the web at the WordPress address noted above.


20 June 2017

Everything below here is way out of date and getting older!


Our research covers a wide range of materials science, from quite fundamental studies of the unusual properties of two-dimensional magnetic systems to the very applied use of neutron scattering in studying problems encountered in manufacturing metal components and in optimising engineering materials. In between, we explore the properties and structures of technologically relevant oxide ceramics, and use diffuse scattering of X-rays, neutrons and electrons to better understand the local (nanoscale if you like) ordering in solids, with a particular emphasis on oxide ceramics and molecular crystals.
     The work on short-range order (SRO) is done in conjunction with the Disordered Materials group in the Research School of Chemistry at ANU.
     The work on oxides ceramics is done in conjunction with the Solid State Inorganic Chemistry (Materials Chemistry) group in the RSC, while magnetic studies, whether on oxides or other materials, are done in collaboration with the School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences at the ADFA campus of the University of New South Wales.
     The work on optimising engineering materials is done in conjunction with a range of collaborators including colleagues from the ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science and Ceramet Technologies.
     Throughout our work, a common thread is the link between materials' properties and diffraction, and particularly X-ray and neutron diffraction. The X-ray work is done primarily at the ANU, with experimental visits to synchrotrons around Australia and the world when necessary. Much of the neutron diffraction is done at the Bragg Institute. The Bragg Institute, based at ANSTO, offers many opportunities to students, including year-long internships and postgraduate co-supervision and collaboration. Other neutron work is done at the ISIS neutron source in the UK, and elsewhere around the world.

Group leader, Darren Goossens, was until recently an Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) Research Fellow. AINSE provides access to nuclear-related science for Australia-based researchers. They offer post graduate awards as well as providing the link to ANSTO.

Research projects on offer

These documents are fairly broad in scope. Individual projects can be tailored to suit the student's preferences, and I am always happy to talk about possible projects. Projects can vary from those suitable for an undergraduate research topic (for example as part of ENGN4200, CHEM3060 Research Project in Chemistry or PHYS3045 Research Topics Physics and similar subjects), through honours projects to full Ph.D. projects, and can range from highly experimental to predominantly computational. Projects include opportunities to develop skills in: collecting data at a range of local, national and international facilities; synthesising samples using a wide range of techniques; characterising samples using a range of structural techniques such as X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, as well as physical properties measurements; modelling of data using high performance computing.
Disorder and Diffuse Scattering
Magnetism in Two Dimensions
Technological Oxides
Developing New Modelling Methods
Understanding the Formation of Metal Injection Moulded Components

Research interests

DisorderDisorder in Materials is a very common phenomenon. It occurs in molecular crystals, ceramic oxides, metals -- almost every type of material. In crystalline materials disorder means local departures from the average structure. This could be due to flexing of molecules and frameworks, disordered substitution of atomic species, crystal defects and so on. Indeed, few real systems are really free of disorder. When the disorder is correlated over the short range (nanometres), it results in broad features in the diffraction pattern. Interpreting these allows us to understand the disorder, and gain insight into the physics and chemistry of the material, insights beyond those available when studying only the Bragg peaks in the diffraction pattern, as is most commonly done. Web version of a lecture on diffuse scattering and disorder, presented at ANSTO/AINSE/IAEA Summer School, Dec 2007.

0xidesStructure of Oxides: Properties found in oxide materials include superconductivity, ordered magnetism, piezoelectricity and multiferroic behaviour. We use a combination of bulk-property studies (dielectric, magnetic and so on) coupled with detailed structural studies using neutron, X-ray and electron diffraction, to try to make the link between structure and function in such materials. Once this relationship is understood, new materials can be 'designed', with new and improved properties.

2D Mag

Magnetism in Two Dimensions occurs in a range of materials, and is of fundamental interest. We are interested in the interrelationship of critical behaviour, spin dimensionality and the dimensionality of the magnetic system. The types of magnetic ordering present as a function of applied field, temperature and composition, and the effect of magnetic mixing and dilution on the properties and structures are the main areas of study. Key tools include magnetometry and neutron diffraction, as the neutron scatters from the magnetic moment of an atom.


ZMC is a program to model diffuse scattering, particularly from flexible molecules. It has been under steady development.


StrucFact is a program to calculate structure factors for neutron scattering, both nuclear and magnetic. It is very crude and manual but at least simple. Updated September 2013. Archives contain source code (Fortran90), some documentation and some executables. zip tar.gz


Brillouin is a trivial program to calculate 'Brillouin magnetic moment as a function of reduced temperature' curves. Updated June 2014. Archives contain source code (Fortran90), a Linux executable and some sample output. Please see the source code for the details of the paper that I used for the basis of the calculation; it should be referenced if this code is used. tar.gz


Metal Injection Moulding is powder metallurgy manufacturing process and we are examining the kinetics of phase evolution during sintering of the components by using a combination of neutron diffraction and electron microscopy.

Group members, 2013:

Darren Goossens (Group Leader) -
Ross Whitfield (Ph.D. Scholar Understanding nanostructure in lead-containing piezoceramics)
Jessica Hudspeth (Ph.D. Scholar Short-range order in ferroelectric triglycine sulphate)
Fred Marlton (Chemisty Honours Substitution of Rare Earths into YMnO3.)

Former group members:

Marek Paściak (Postdoctoral fellow)
Jessica Hudspeth (Honours student, 2008 The Structure and Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Calcium Ferrates)
Ross Whitfield (Honours student, 2008 Study of phase formation in metal injection moulding through in situ neutron diffraction)
Daniel James (Engineering Honours student, 2009 The Structural and Magnetic Characteristics of MxM'1-xPS3 (M, M' = Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn))
Shaun Trevena (Engineering Honours student, 2010 Structural Study of Some rare-Earth Ferrates)
Sam Brazier-Hollins (Engineering, Honours, 2011 Magnetic and Structural Characterisation of Metal Phosphorous Chalcogenides)
Lachlan Henderson (Engineering, Honours, 2011 Synthesis and Characterisation of Rare-Earth Oxides)
Basilia Sethu (Engineering, Honours, 2012 Structural evolution of YMnO3)
Sathyan Pooranachandran (Engineering, Honours, 2012 B site substitution in BiFeO3)
Chris Weekes (Masters of Chemistry, 2012 Magnetic structure in BiFeO3 derivatives.)

Past Research Project Students:
Cameron Samuels (2005, synthesis of superconductors).
Nathan Deutcher and John Bartholemew (2006, developing an undergraduate lab on the synthesis of superconductors).
Paul Altin (2006, diffuse scattering from Ibuprofen).
Ross Whitfield (2006, quasicrystals).
Jessica Hudspeth (2007, synthesis and structure of oxyfluorides).
David Hutchinson (2007, diffuse scattering in CMA).
Michael Finlayson (2008, genetic algorithms to find models for diffuse scattering data).
Vicki Hudepohl (2008, diffuse scattering in a polymorphic system).
Emma Anderson (2009, diffuse scattering in terephthalic acid).
Jarrod Dong (2009, synthesis of superconductors)
Sam Brazier-Hollins (2010, synthesising lead-free ferroelectrics).
Juanita Gonzalez-Aguilar (2010, synthesis and structure of LnCa2Fe3O8 family of compounds).
Jarrod Dong (2010, synthesis and magnetism of materials of the MPS3 family).
Briana Hillman (2011, structural properties of compounds in the MPS3-xSex family)
Céline Seguy (2011, diffuse scattering from flexible polymorphic molecular crystals)
Jarrod Dong (2011 Synthesis of lead-free piezoceramics)
Ming Teo (2012 The evolution from LaCa2Fe3O8 into La1/3Ca2/3MnO3.)
Fred Marlton (2012 Substitution of BaTiO3 into YMnO3.)


Selected Publications | Full List (not current) | Self-archived pdfs, where copyright allows...

R.Farr, K.Wilson, P.Young and D.Goossens (2018), Physics in Focus: Year 12, 2nd edn. Cengage, Melbourne.

R.Farr, K.Wilson, P.Young and D.Goossens (2017), Physics in Focus: Year 11, 2nd edn. Cengage, Melbourne.

D.J.Goossens and E.J.Chan, 'Synchrotron X-ray diffuse scattering from a stable polymorphic material: Terephthalic acid, C8H6O4', Acta Crystallographica Section B 73 (2017) 112-121. DOI: 10.1107/S2052520616018801

E.J.Chan and D.J.Goossens, 'A method to perform modulated structure studies using the program ZMC', Journal of Applied Crystallography 50(2017) 1834-1843. DOI: 10.1107/S1600576717015023

D.J.Goossens, 'Exploring Cluster Growth Using a Simple Domino Tiling', Condensed Matter 2 (2017). DOI: 10.3390/condmat2020015

R.E.Whitfield, D.J. Goossens and T.R.Welberry, 'Total scattering and pair distribution function analysis in modelling disorder in PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3)', IUCrJ 3 (2016) 20-31. DOI: 10.1107/S2052252515018722

D.J.Goossens, 'Monte carlo modelling of single-crystal diffuse scattering from intermetallics', Metals 6 (2016) DOI: 10.3390/met6020033

T.R.Welberry and D.J.Goossens, 'Interpretation of diffuse scattering in the high-TC superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ', IUCrJ 3 (2016) 309-318. DOI: 10.1107/S2052252516010629

D.J.Goossens, 'A Process for Modelling Diffuse Scattering from Disordered Molecular Crystals, Illustrated by Application to Monoclinic 9-Chloro-10-methylanthracene', Advances in Condensed Matter Physics (2015). DOI: 10.1155/2015/878463 This paper includes deposited material that alloows the reader to build and run the simulation for themselves, so is a useful tool in learning about MC modelling of diffuse scattering.

F.P.Marlton, D.J.Goossens, R.White and W.D.Hutchison, 'Rapid microwave synthesis and structural phase diagram of LnxY1-xMnO3', Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section B Journal of Chemical Sciences 69 (2014) 761-766. DOI: 10.5560/ZNB.2014-4065

T.R.Welberry and D.J.Goossens 'Diffuse scattering and partial disorder in complex structures', IUCrJ 1 (2014) 550-562. DOI: 10.1107/S205225251402065X

D.J.Goossens, 'Local Ordering in Lead-based Relaxor Ferroelectrics', Accounts of Chemical Research, 46 (2013) 2597-2606. DOI: 10.1021/ar400073w

J.M. Hudspeth, D.J. Goossens, T.R.Welberry and M.J. Gutmann, 'Diffuse Scattering and the Mechanism for the Phase Transition in Triglycine Sulphate', Journal of Materials Science 48 (2013) 6605-6612. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7457-8

J. M. Hudspeth, D. J. Goossens, M. J. Gutmann and A. J. Studer, 'A neutron diffraction study of the phase transition of fully deuterated triglycine sulphate (ND2CD2COOD)3.D2SO4', Crystal Research and Technology 48 (2013) 169-180, DOI: 10.1002/crat.201300061.

D.J.Goossens, S.Brazier-Hollins, D.R.James, W.D.Hutchison and J.R.Hester, 'Magnetic Structure and Glassiness in Fe0.5Ni0.5PS3', Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 334 (2013) 82-86, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2013.01.023.

M. Paściak, A.P.Heerdegen, D.J.Goossens, R.E.Whitfield, A.Pietraszko and T.R.Welberry, 'Assessing local structure in PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3 using diffuse scattering and reverse Monte Carlo refinement' Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 44 (2013) 87-93. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-012-1475-z

W.D. Hutchison, D.J. Goossens, R.E. Whitfield, A.J. Studer, K. Nishimura and T. Mizushima, 'Field-induced incommensurate spin structure of TbNiAl3', Phys. Rev. B, 86 (2012) 014412. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.014412

E.J.Chan and D.J.Goossens, 'Study of the single-crystal X-ray diffuse scattering in paracetamol polymorphs', Acta Cryst. B68 (2012) 80-88, DOI:10.1107/S0108768111046295

D.J.Goossens , R.E.Whitfield and A.J.Studer, 'Optimising Sintering in Metal Injection Moulding Using In Situ Neutron Diffraction', Materials Science Forum 706-709 (2012) 1737-1742. DOI:10.4028/

T.R.Welberry, D.J.Goossens, E.J.Chan and A.P.Heerdegen, 'Diffuse scattering as an aid to the understanding of polymorphism in pharmaceuticals', Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 43A (2012) 1434-1444. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0719-7

R.E.Whitfield, D.J.Goossens, A.J.Studer and J.S.Forrester, 'Measuring Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering on the Wombat High Intensity Powder Diffractometer', Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 43A (2012) 1423-1428, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0740-x.

R.E.Whitfield, A.J.Studer and D.J.Goossens, 'Temperature dependence of diffuse scattering in PZN', Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 43A (2012) 1429-1433, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0848-z.

J.M.Hudspeth, G.A.Stewart, A.J.Studer and D.J.Goossens, 'Crystal and Magnetic Structures in Perovskite-related La1-xCaxFeO3-δ (x=0.2, 0.33)', Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 72 (2011) 1543-1547. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2011.09.014

D.J.Goossens, D. James, J. Dong, R.E.Whitfield, L.Norén and R.L.Withers, 'Local order in layered NiPS3 and Ni0.7Mg0.3PS3' Journal of Physics: Condens. Matt., 23 (2011) 65401. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/23/6/065401

D.J.Goossens, A.P.Heerdegen, E.J.Chan and T.R.Welberry, 'Monte Carlo Modelling of Diffuse Scattering from Single Crystals: The Program ZMC', Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 42A (2011) 23-31. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-010-0199-1.

D.J.Goossens, A.J.Studer and Z.H.Stachurski, 'Microstructure of Horseshoe Nails Using Neutron Diffraction', Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 19 (2010) 380-384. DOI:10.1007/s11665-009-9501-z.

D.J.Goossens and T.R.Welberry, 'Diffuse Scattering from Molecular Crystals', pp 181-210 (book chapter), Diffuse Scattering and the Fundamental Properties of Materials, edited by Rozaliya I. Barabash, Gene E. Ice and Patrice E.A. Turchi. Momentum Press, 2009. Print ISBN: 978-1-60650-000-2. E-book ISBN: 978-1-60650-002-6

D.J.Goossens and M.J.Gutmann, 'Revealing how interactions lead to ordering in para-terphenyl', Physical Review Letters, 102 (2009) 015505-1-4.

E.J.Chan, T.R.Welberry, D.J.Goossens, A.P.Heerdegen, A.G.Beasley and P.J.Chupas, 'Single-crystal diffuse scattering studies on polymorphs of molecular crystals. I. The room-temperature polymorphs of the drug benzocaine', Acta Cryst. B65 (2009) 382-392.

J.M.Hudspeth, D.J.Goossens, A.J.Studer, R.L.Withers and L.Norén, 'The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa2Fe3O8 and NdCa2Fe3O8', J. Phys.: Condens. Matt., 21 (2009) 124206.

T.R.Welberry and D.J.Goossens, 'Different models for the polar nanodomain structure of PZN and other relaxor ferroelectrics', Journal of Applied Crystallography 41 (2008) 606-614.

D.J.Goossens, A.P.Heerdegen, T.R.Welberry and A.G.Beasley, 'The Molecular Conformation of Ibuprofen, C13H18O2, Through X-ray Diffuse Scattering', International Journal of Pharmaceutics 343 (2007) 59-68.

D.J.Goossens, T.R.Welberry, A.P. Heerdegen and M.J. Gutmann, 'Simultaneous Fitting of X-ray and Neutron Diffuse Scattering Data', Acta Crystallographica A A63 (2007) 30-35.

T.R.Welberry, D.J.Goossens and M.J.Gutmann, 'The Chemical Origin of Polar nano-domains in PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3 (PZN)', Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006) 224108.

R.A.Robinson, D.J.Goossens, M.S.Torikachvili, K.Kakuri and H.Okamura, 'A quantum multi-critical point in CeCu6-xAux', Physica B 385-386 (2006) 38-40.

D.J.Goossens, T.R. Welberry, M.E. Hagen and J.A. Fernandez-Baca, 'Structural phase transition in deuterated benzil C14D10O2: Neutron inelastic scattering', Phys. Rev. B 73 (2006) 134116.

W.D.Hutchison, D.J.Goossens, K.Nishimura, K.Mori, Y.Isikawa and A.J.Studer, 'Magnetic Structure of TbNiAl4', J. Magn. & Magn. Mat. 301 (2006) 352-358.

M.James, K.S.Wallwork, R.L.Withers, D.J.Goossens, K.F.Wilson, J.Horvat, X.L.Wang and M.Collela, 'Structure and Magnetism in the Oxygen-Deficient Perovskites Ce1-xSrxCoO3-δ (x ≥ 0.90)', Mat. Res. Bull. 40(8) (2005) 1415-1431.

D.J.Goossens, K.F.Wilson, M.James, A.J.Studer and X.L.Wang, 'Structural and Magnetic Properties of Y0.33Sr0.67CoO2.79', Phys. Rev. B 69 (2004) 134411.

D.J.Goossens, A.R.Wildes, C.Ritter and T.J.Hicks, 'Order and the nature of the spin flop phase transition in MnPS3' Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 12 (2000) 1845-1854.

D.J.Goossens, A.J.Studer, S.J.Kennedy and T.J.Hicks, 'The impact of magnetic dilution on magnetic order in MnPS3', Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 12 (2000) 4233-4242.

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Updated: 18 Dec 2020 .